Dual Frequency Band Microstrip Array Antenna

The antenna plays a very important role in determining the overall system performance of air-borne as well as space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The basic driving force for frequency and polarization selection of a SAR system is the application targeted for. SAR systems are generally operated at L, C and X band for most of the applications. There is an increasing demand of simultaneous multi-frequency SAR for space-borne and air-borne SAR systems to get images of targets of different signatures during one visit of a particular region of earth. A wholly independent antenna for each frequency band would be inefficient and considerable saving in space and weight can be achieved if multi-frequency band SAR signals can be transmitted and received via a single aperture antenna. Moreover, for airborne applications, SAR data at different frequencies like C and X band can be acquired without landing the aircraft for mounting of different antenna at different frequency bands if a multi-frequency SAR system is used on board the aircraft. Antennas at different frequency bands will occupy larger area which may be prohibited by the available space in the radome of the air craft.Thus, there is a strong need to develop antennas which fulfills the requirement of multi-frequency operation for SAR applications.

In this design, rectangular as well as dog bone slots have been used as radiator at X-band to investigate the merits and demerits of these two configurations of slots. Inset fed patch  has been used as radiating elements at C-band.  A parametric study has been carried out by varying various dimensions of the slot and simulated return loss curves are presented. Similarly the lateral spacing between patch and slot is varied and its effect on return loss is presented. A planar array of two by two Microstrip patches at C-band slots at X-band in a single aperture has been designed, fabricated and tested to validate the design.

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