High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is an audio/video (A/V) transmission protocol, which is omnipresent in consumer electronics, personal computing, and mobile products. Modern-day requirements of big screen resolutions, 3D, and multi-channel/multi-stream audio have pushed display devices to use a completely digital, high-speed transmission media, requiring a multi-layered protocol like HDMI.HDMI 2.0 is the next generation of the popular audio/video high-definition standard and it is the successor to the current HDMI 1.4a/b specifications. The ongoing rise of 4K Ultra HD is the reason behind the entry of HDMI 2.0 into the market. Since 4K Ultra HD is four times the resolution of 1080p, the current HD standard, there is a need for more throughput to handle large amounts of data. Some of the key features of the HDMI 2.0 specification include scrambling, character error detection, and dynamic auto lip-sync.
HDMI connector Pinout
HDMI 2.0 increases the maximum TMDS per channel throughput from 3.4 Gbit/s to 6 Gbit/s which allows for a maximum total TMDS throughput of 18 Gbit/s. This enables HDMI 2.0 to carry 4K video at 60 fps. HDMI connector pins functions are shown here. Transition Minimized Differential Signaling (TMDS) on HDMI interleaves video, audio and auxiliary data using three different packet types, called the Video Data Period, the Data Island Period and the Control Period. During the Video Data Period, the pixels of an active video line are transmitted. During the Data Island period (which occurs during the horizontal and vertical blanking intervals), audio and auxiliary data are transmitted within a series of packets.
HDMI 2.0 Connector EM Simulation
HDMI 2.0 connector CAD model is imported and pins are defined for EM simulation using Finite element method. S-parameter data is calculation for all pins and EM model is extracted as S-parameter data block for further SI-PI ( Signal Integrity and Power Integrity Analysis) . From this analysis, important factors from a Signal Integrity point of view (e.g., impedance matching, reflection, attenuation, impedance mismatch, propagating delay, crosstalk, and alignment shapes of connectors) are analyzed. The return loss is better than -9 dB while the insertion loss is less than -1.5 dB over the band (0-3.5 GHz).
TP1 SI-PI Analysis
TP1 represents the connection point of the Receptacle. Differential Eye probes have been placed after the Receptacle at TP1 to view the eye diagrams at the output of the Source device when terminated with RT(=50 ohm) and termination supply voltage (Vcc) set to 3.3V . 8. TP1 mask has been specified in the HDMI 2.0 specifications at Test point TP1 for frequencies.