MIMO technology is one of the most effective means to improve the system spectrum efficiency, transmission reliability and data rate. In massive MIMO systems, the base stations are equipped with many antennas and the total system capacity will approximately linearly increase with the minimum number of transmitter and receiver antennas.
The key technology of the massive MIMO is the phased array multi-beam antenna system. A phased array antenna is composed of lots of radiating elements each with a phase shifter. Beams are formed by shifting the phase of the signal emitted from each radiating element, to provide constructive/destructive interference so as to steer the beams in the desired direction. These antennas provide the ability to concentrate signal strength into smaller areas of space, boosting overall efficiency and throughput by guiding the signal to the precise location it’s needed.
I have delivered a talk to cover different beamforming techniques on 5G Phased array Antenna design.